In the January climatological bulletin, the Portuguese Institute of the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA) states that during the first month of the year, there was some “variability in air temperature values”, with “temperature values almost always above normal” for this month and in the period from the 7th to the 17th and on the 20th and 21st there were “hot days and nights for the season”.

However, as specified by the IPMA, from the 22nd there was a sharp drop in temperature, in particular the minimum, with the occurrence of cold nights, with the average value of the minimum temperature on the 26th, 30th, and 31st being below zero degrees centigrade (°C).

“In January, in mainland Portugal, the average air temperature was 9.14°C, with an anomaly of 0.33°C above the normal value. Average air temperature values higher than those of this month have occurred in 30% of the years since 1931”, stresses the document, noting that the occurrence of “hot days and nights”, between 07:00 and 21:00, especially in the regions of the Center and South, “only occurs in 10% of cases”.

The IPMA highlights the occurrence of a cold wave in about 15% of the meteorological stations and that covered some places in the Northeast region, in the central coastal region, and in the south coast.

Normal rainfall

The report also indicates that the month of January is characterized as normal in terms of rainfall, with a total rainfall of 104.1 millimetres, which corresponds to 89% “of the normal value”.

The IPMA points out that, between 2017 and 2022, monthly precipitation values in January were “always lower than the normal value”.

Regarding the accumulated precipitation since October 1, 2022, the IPMA indicates that the values of this hydrological year are “higher than normal in the North and Center region and Alto Alentejo, with emphasis on the North coast and the altitude zones of the Center region”, while in the region of Baixo Alentejo and Algarve, the water in the dams is “below average”.