Data from the Growing Up in Ireland survey were used in research conducted by the Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) in collaboration with the Department of Children, Equality, Disability, Inclusion, and Youth.

It contrasted the consequences of the Covid-19 epidemic and the limitations, digitization, and restructuring of the junior cycle by comparing 13-year-olds in 2011–12 and 2021/22.

Over time, it was discovered that both dads and mothers reported significantly decreased levels of conflict with their adolescent children.

All socioeconomic cohorts had a decrease in conflict, with more disadvantaged groups experiencing the most reduction. The only exception was among low-income households, where the degree of conflict remained constant throughout time.

Parents are far less likely to employ punitive methods like shouting at the child (41 percent never doing so compared with 28 percent) or grounding (69 percent never doing so compared with 59 percent) and are more likely to explain what the young person has done wrong (63 percent always doing so compared with 49 percent).

Additionally, young people reported having fewer friendship groups than they had in the past: the percentage of respondents with big peer groups decreased from 55% to 38%, and the percentage of respondents with a large group of close friends (more than 6) decreased from 26% to 14%.