According to the final data published by the INE (National Statistics Institute), “this is largely due to the contribution of the negative variation in prices of restaurants and hotels”, and “the price reductions seen in clothing and footwear, as a result of greater intensity in promotions at the end of the season, and the change in the VAT rate applied to some electricity and natural gas tariffs also contributed to the reduction of this rate”.

Underlying inflation (which excludes unprocessed food and energy) recorded a year-on-year change of -0.1 percent in July, 0.7 percentage points lower than in June.

This data coincide with the rapid estimate of consumer prices published by the INE on 31 July.