In 2021, 4.09 million children were born in the EU, up slightly from 4.07 million births in the previous year (a rate of 1.5) and on par with 2019.

Among Member States, Malta (1.13), Spain (1.19) and Italy (1.25) recorded the lowest fertility rates in 2021, and at the opposite extreme are France (1.84), Czech Republic (1.83) and Romania (1.81).

No EU country has, however, reached the replacement rate: two children per woman.

In Portugal, the fertility rate dropped, in 2021, to 1.35 children, compared to 1.41 in 2020.