According to the meteorological drought index (PDSI) available on the website of the Portuguese Institute of the Sea and the Atmosphere (IPMA), at the end of October, 40% of mainland Portugal was in light rain, 31.8% normal, 13.6 % in mild drought, 11. 6% in moderate drought and 3% in severe drought.

In September, 48.6% of mainland Portugal was in a normal situation, 37.8% in light drought, 8.6% in light rain and 5% in moderate drought.

The institute classifies the meteorological drought index into nine classes, which varies between “extreme rain” and “extreme drought”.

According to IPMA, there are four types of drought: meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic.

Meteorological drought is directly linked to rainfall deficit, when below normal rainfall occurs.

In addition to the drought index, the IPMA Climatological Bulletin indicates that the month of October, in mainland Portugal, was classified as very hot and dry in relation to air temperature and normal in relation to precipitation.

The average value of the average air temperature (17.73 degrees Celsius) was the 6th highest since 2000 (highest in 2017 at 19.57 degrees).

According to the IPMA, the average maximum air temperature value, 23.69 degrees Celsius, was higher than the normal value (2.46%), and is the 5th highest value since 2000 (highest in 2017, with 27.11 degrees).

As for the minimum temperature, the mean air value (11.77 degrees) was 0.58 degrees higher than the normal value.

The lowest value of the minimum temperature was recorded on October 24th and 28th in Carrazeda de Ansiães, in the district of Bragança, (0.2 degrees) and the highest value in Mora (Évora) on the 7th with 34.2 degrees.