The research, published in the scientific newsletter Environment International, focused on 749 European cities and found that almost 60 million people are subject to "unhealthy levels of noise" generated by vehicles.

It is estimated that if the noise levels recommended by the WHO were met, thousands of deaths could be avoided annually, namely 3,600 caused by ischemic heart disease.

The WHO recommends that the average noise level over a 24-hour period should not exceed 53 decibels.

In the case of Lisbon, the percentage of the population exposed to noise above the limit is 40.6%. Looking at other European capitals, it is in Berlin that this percentage is lowest, at 29.8%.

Vienna is the city with the most population exposed to excessive noise, with a percentage of 86.5%.

In previous studies, environmental noise has been linked to a variety of negative health effects, from sleep disturbances to problems with childbirth, as well as heart disease.

"Prolonged exposure to traffic noise can cause a continued stress reaction that increases heart rate, blood pressure and blood vessel constriction, eventually leading to chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, depression and anxiety," says the Barcelona Institute for Global Health.